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By contrast, upland felds on steep slopes in the western part of Japan, largely on distributed Brown Forest Soils, were simply abandoned (Takata et al. Status of the Worlds Soil Resources | Main Report Regional Assessment of Soil Changes 310310 in Asia An agricultural soil monitoring project named Basic Soil-Environmental Monitoring in Japan has been conducted since 1979. This soil monitoring project has taken readings at repeated fve year intervals at about 20 000 fxed points. At the same time, soil carbon content in arable land gradually rose from 88 to 90 tonnes C ha-1. Heavy metal contamination Rapid industrialization in Japan during the 1960s polluted arable soil with heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Arsenic (As). There were four main pollution sources: mining activity, factories and incinerators, fertilizer, and precipitation and irrigation water (Makino, 2010). In 1970, the Japanese government enacted the Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Law to regulate heavy metal pollution. The allowable limitation of Cd was set in terms of the Cd concentration in rice grains (1 mg kg-1). The amount of bioavailable Cd in soil is afected by many factors, so setting an allowable concentration in terms of the soil Cd content is impractical (Asami, 1981). The area of polluted arable land was assessed as 7 592 ha (Cd, 7 050 ha; Cu, 1 405 ha; As, 391 ha). The distribution map of radioactive Cs concentration in agricultural soil is shown in Figure 10. Farmers of level 4 contaminated felds were advised to solidify their topsoil with a fxation Status of the Worlds Soil Resources | Main Report Regional Assessment of Soil Changes 311311 in Asia Fukushima Legend (Bq kg-1) 0 500 500 1000 1000 5000 5000 10000 10000 25000 25000 50000 50000< Figure 10. Paddy felds with contamination level 2 (2 100 ha) have three options for decontamination: topsoil removal, fne-textured topsoil removal using water, and topsoil burying. Upland felds, orchards, and meadows that are at contamination level 2 (1 200 ha) have two options for decontamination: topsoil removal and topsoil burying. Nutrient imbalance the soil surface nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) balance in Japanese arable land has been improving (Mishima, Endo and Kohyama, 2010a; 2010b). These values serve as the index of the impact of arable land on the environment and of the farm-gate balance of nutrients. The soil surface N (and P) balance is defned as the total N (P) input (N kg ha-1) minus the total N (P) output (N kg ha-1). Chemical fertilizer application in Japan declined continuously during the period from 1985 to 2005. The application rate of livestock manure also peaked in 1990 and declined thereafter. Between 1985 and 2005, the surplus N and P (positive value of soil surface N balance) declined from 89. However, this trend was not consistent at the regional level because organic amendment applications were largely related to the availability and movement of livestock excreta (Mishima, Endo and Kohyama, 2010a) and to soil type (Leon et al. High surplus P and low crop P uptake compared with N, P input for crop production could be reduced. This limited negative environmental efects such as eutrophication of soil and water and conserved limited P resources. The soil erodibility factor (K) of arable land was calculated using the physico-chemical soil properties (soil texture, soil organic matter content, etc. The K factor was relatively higher in clayey lowland soil group than in humic Andosol groups. The cover and management factor (C) of each crop was determined by Taniyama (2003), and was delineated using the agro environmental census data map (Kohyama et al. Highly erodible zones were mainly distributed in areas of western Japan which are characterized by complex topography and heavy precipitation. In Asia, rice cultivation areas roughly account for 89 percent of the global total (Yan, Akimoto and Ohara, 2003). Rice paddies in monsoon Asia countries contributed far and away the largest share of these emissions, estimated at 23. The areas with the greatest emission intensity were the delta regions of large rivers in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Vietnam, the island of Java in Indonesia, central Thailand, southern China and the southwestern portion of the Korean peninsula (Figure 10.

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This relationship is generally valid for fsh products when salt (sodium chloride) is the primary means of binding water. The specifc food matrix and the use of other salts or water binding agents could affect the exact relationship. If you intend to use this relationship in your control strategy, you should determine the exact relationship in your product by conducting a study. Drying E and non-proteolytic types B and F, and is covered in Chapter 14, controlling the then minimizing the risk of recontamination growth of proteolytic C. Controlling the growth of non container in a sanitary, continuous, closed proteolytic C. Specialized cooking processes preservatives, such as sodium nitrite, in are covered in Chapter 16, prevention of the fnished product, in combination with recontamination after specialized cooking other barriers, such as smoke, heat damage, processes is covered in Chapter 18, and competitive bacteria, suffciently to controlling the growth of proteolytic C. It is important to note, damage from pasteurization in the fnished however, that this same heating process also product container, suffciently to prevent reduces the numbers of naturally occurring the growth of C. The spoilage organisms nonproteolytic types B and F, and then would otherwise have competed with, and controlling the growth of C. Controlling the growth because spoilage organisms must be present of non-proteolytic C. Control bacteria through refrigeration is covered in of the temperature during the cold-smoking Chapter 12. Control of the brining or dry Achieving the proper concentration of salting process is clearly critical to ensure that salt and nitrite in the fesh of refrigerated, there is suffcient salt in the fnished product. Proper drying with smoke and any nitrites that are added during smoking is also critical in order to to prevent growth and toxin formation by C. Note that nitrites should be used the water portion of the fsh fesh) needed only in salmon, sable, shad, chubs, and tuna, to inhibit growth and toxin formation by C. You by naturally occurring substances, such as should treat brine to minimize microbial lysozyme. Cooking and pasteurization are contamination or periodically replace it as a covered in Chapter 16, and controlling the good manufacturing practice control. The combination of inhibitory effects that are present in smoked and smoke-favored fsh In the second category of products, flling are not adequate to prevent toxin formation the product into the fnal container while it is by C. This control other pathogens that may be present in strategy applies to products such as soups, these products. Controlling the growth of chowders, and sauces that are flled directly proteolytic C. It may not growth of other pathogenic bacteria through apply to products such as crabmeat, lobster refrigeration is covered in Chapter 12. These controls may be critical are cooked in a kettle and then hot flled to the safety of both categories of products. In both follow: fsh and fshery products generally cases, ordinarily the heating process should. Control of the brining, pickling, In some pasteurized surimi-based or formulation steps is, therefore, critical to products, salt, in combination with a milder ensure that there are suffcient barriers in the pasteurization process, in the fnished product fnished product to prevent the growth and container works to prevent growth and toxin toxin formation of C. These control procedures properly pasteurized surimi-based product are covered in this chapter. This pickling loads to single species and to fsh process may not be suitable for other types of portions of approximately uniform size.

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On September 20, 1992, a high-intensity storm produced about four inches of rain immediately north of the base which resulted in extensive flooding on the base. Floodwater overtopped the Dysart Drain and spilled onto the runways, into the aircraft parking areas, and into the base-housing area. The flooding closed the base for three days, inundated more than 100 homes, and generally disrupted base operations. Redesign and reconstruction of the Dysart Drain system to correct for the land subsidence was estimated to exceed $16 million (Schumann and ODay, 1995). At 56 Street and Mountain View, excessive sewage gases were produced in a city sewer main due to slope change and a significant reduction in the systems capacity to self-clean. Expensive chemical feeder countermeasures were needed to mitigate the gas production and other sewer mains in the area are also vulnerable. The subsidence also caused the collapse of a municipal well casing and the need to re-establish local vertical survey benchmarks (Harmon, 1982). Since 1900, the south-central Arizonas groundwater pumping for irrigation, mining, and municipal use has outpaced the recharge by 500 times in some areas (Schumann and Cripe, 1986). Over 3,000 square miles of the state is affected by subsidence, including the surrounding and expanding areas of the Phoenix and Tucson Metropolitan areas, and the rapidly growing areas of northern Pinal County. Before many communities became established, agriculture was the driving force for groundwater pumping. The magnitude of a land subsidence event is low due to the fact that subsidence is unlikely to cause sudden wide spread damage to life and infrastructure. For the purpose of this Plan, the active subsidence areas are considered by the Planning Team to be high hazard areas. Accordingly, warning time is not relevant to subsidence and especially not in the way of emergency response or prediction. The projected long-term worsening or intensifying of drought periods through warming trends and precipitation influences may also have the effect of increasing the rate of subsidence if groundwater sources continue to be depleted. The Arizona Land Subsidence Group (2007) states: The problems encountered with subsidence and earth fissures in Arizona will increase as groundwater continues to be withdrawn at unsustainable levels. Changes in Development Development and the population continue to grow in areas that are subjected to the risks of fissure formation as old agricultural lands are converted to residential housing units. Increased water demand from new developments, combined with limited surface-water supplies, induce increased groundwater pumping that exacerbates fissure formation conditions. North Region Except for a small portion of La Paz County, most of the North Region has very low to no risk from subsidence. Accordingly, development changes in the non-La Paz County areas of the North Region are not expected to be impacted by subsidence risk the active Ranegras Plain and McMullen Valley subsidence areas in La Paz County are not anticipated to experience significant population growth over the next five years. Local agriculture relies solely on groundwater for meeting the irrigation needs of the local farms, so proposed changes to crop types or irrigation methods that increase the water demand may increase the groundwater declines and exacerbate the current subsidence rates. Central Region Areas within the Central Region have experienced the most significant subsidence in the state. Development of the Phoenix Metropolitan communities (both the west and east 2018 194 2018 State of Arizona Hazard Mitigation Plan valley), and the San Tan Valley, are expected to continue, and will likely be impacted by ongoing subsidence rates. Impacts to drainage and gravity flow systems may require special design considerations in the areas of significant lowering. Conversion of agricultural lands to residential, commercial, and industrial developments may initially reduce the burden on groundwater sources as irrigated agriculture typically uses more water, allowing for wastewater streams to be treated and recharged. Expansion of development in the higher risk Casa Grande, Eloy, and Picacho areas is expected to be limited over the next five years. South Region the primary areas of active subsidence are located near the Tucson Metropolitan area and the Willcox, San Simon, Bowie, and Elfrida areas of Cochise County. Moderate growth of the Tucson Metropolitan area is anticipated and may be impacted by slight subsidence. Very limited growth of the Cochise County areas is anticipated, and some of that growth may extend into the active subsidence areas.

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A concern raised about administering atracurium to patients with hepatic disease was the [339] possible accumulation of laudanosine. Although laudanosine relies principally on hepatic mechanisms for elimination, the concentrations encountered during liver [339][735] transplantation are unlikely to be associated with clinical sequelae. In patients with hepatic disease (most commonly cirrhosis), the distribution volume of [353][356][357][732] [357] rocuronium is increased, and its clearance may be decreased. The duration [353][357][732] of action of rocuronium is prolonged in patients with hepatic disease, and its [353] onset may be prolonged. In patients with severe liver disease, butyryl-cholinesterase activity is decreased because of [228] decreased synthesis of the enzyme in the liver. Consequently, plasma clearance of the [172] isomers of mivacurium is decreased by approximately 50% (see Table 13-15), and its [172][228] duration of action is prolonged and may be almost tripled. A significant increase in the quantal content of evoked acetylcholine release is noted by [747] 72 hours after scald injury in rats. This increased acetylcholine release also contributes to the resistance to nondepolarizing blockers in burn patients. In mice, thermal injury induces changes in diaphragm acetylcholinesterase with respect to total content and specific [748] molecular forms. Anesthetic Implications Resistance to the effects of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs is usually seen [244][746] in patients with greater than 25% total-body surface area burns. Recovery of [749] neuromuscular function to preburn levels may take several months or even years after [750] the burn injury. The increase in serum potassium that normally follows succinylcholine [119][751] administration is markedly exaggerated in burned victims. Potassium concentrations as high as 13 mEq/L and resulting in ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation, and cardiac arrest [751][752] have been reported. The magnitude of the hyperkalemic response does not appear to closely correlate with the magnitude of the burn injury. Potentially Iethal hyperkalemia was [753] seen in a patient with only an 8% total-body surface area burn. After this initial 24 hours, however, sufficient alteration in muscle response may have occurred, and the use of succinylcholine is best avoided. The time course of abnormal muscle membrane function corresponds with that of the healing process. Once normal skin has regrown and any infection has subsided, return of [754] normal acetylcholine receptor populations appears to occur. Normal responses to [754] succinylcholine have been demonstrated in burn patients studied 3 years postinjury. The length of time during which a burn patient may be at risk for a hyperkalemic response is not well defined. A conservative guideline would therefore be to avoid the use of succinylcholine in patients 24 to 48 hours after a thermal injury and for at least 1 to 2 years after the burned skin has healed. Few data support their use, and evidence for a beneficial effect on [755][756][757][758] pulmonary function or patient oxygenation is inconclusive. The results of two surveys in the United States, including anesthesiologists and nurses with special certificates of competence in critical care, indicate [759][760] that 98% of those surveyed use neuromuscular blocking drugs at least occasionally. Table 13-17 Reported indications for use of muscle relaxants in the intensive care unit Facilitate mechanical ventilation Facilitation of endotracheal intubation Enable patient to tolerate mechanical ventilation High pulmonary inflation pressures. In the United Kingdom, the erroneous use of neuromuscular blockers as sedatives in intensive care [764][765][766] was not uncommon in the 1980s. In the United States, neuromuscular blockers are used in less than 20% of all patients requiring mechanical [759] ventilation. Syndromes of weakness in critically ill patients are relatively common and probably polymorphic in origin. In a retrospective study of 92 critically ill patients with clinically diagnosed weakness, electromyographic studies indicated that acute Page 88 Pharmacology of Muscle Relaxants and Their Antagonists myopathy (critical illness myopathy) is three times as common as acute axonal neuropathy [767] (critical illness neuropathy) (43% versus 13%, respectively). The additional health care [772] cost of one case of persistent weakness was estimated to be approximately $67,000.

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Therefore, behavioral responses are not expected unless marine mammals are very close to the source. Any effects likely would be negligible given the brief exposure and relatively low source level. It is unlikely that the acoustic release signals would have a significant effect on marine mammals or sea turtles through masking, disturbance, or hearing impairment. Any effects likely would be negligible given the brief exposure at presumable low levels. Vessel noise from the Langseth could affect marine animals in the proposed survey area. Noise from large vessels generally dominates ambient noise at frequencies from 20 to 300 Hz (Richardson et al. Reactions of humpback whales to boats are variable, ranging from approach to avoidance (Payne 1978; Salden 1993). Humpbacks seem less likely to react overtly when actively feeding than when resting or engaged in other activities (Krieger and Wing 1984, 1986). Many odontocetes show considerable tolerance of vessel traffic, although they sometimes react at long distances if confined by ice or shallow water, if previously harassed by vessels, or have had little or no recent exposure to ships (Richardson et al. Some dolphin species approach moving vessels to ride the bow or stern waves (Williams et al. There are few data on the behavioral reactions of beaked whales to vessel noise, though they seem to avoid approaching vessels. Jensen and Silber (2003) assembled a database of whale strikes reported throughout the world. Of the 292 records of confirmed or possible ship strikes to large whales, most were reported in North America, but this may be an artifact of data collection procedures and/or decreased reporting in other global jurisdictions. The probability of a ship strike resulting in a lethal injury (mortality or severe injury) of a large cetacean increases with ship speed (Laist et al. Most lethal and severe injuries to large whales occur when vessels travel 14 kts or faster, and the probability of severe or lethal injury to a whale approaches 100% in the event of a direct strike when a ship is traveling faster than 15 kts (Laist et al. The probability of a ship strike is a function of vessel density, animal density, and vessel speed. Given the slow speed of the seismic vessel (~4 kt), the probability of injurious or fatal strikes with mammals during the operations is considered to be low. Of all dead sea turtle strandings recorded from Queensland, Australia, 14% were attributable to ship strikes (Hazel and Gyuris 2006). A study carried out to assess the ability of green turtles to avoid vessels in Morton Bay, Queensland, found that the proportion of turtles that displayed a flight response to approaching vessels decreased as speed increased, and that this was most notable for close encounters (Hazel et al. Turtles were observed to flee from slow-moving vessels (~4 km/hr) in 60% of obser vations (Hazel et al. This study also indicated that a turtles ability to detect an approaching vessel was vision-dependent and so directly related to water clarity. Also, the probability of collision during the proposed seismic survey is expected to be low because few encounters with sea turtles are expected. Entanglement of sea turtles in seismic gear is also a concern; there have been reports of turtles being trapped and killed between the gaps in tail-buoys offshore from West Africa (Weir 2007). Towing the hydrophone streamer or other equipment during the proposed survey is not expected to significantly interfere with sea turtle movements, including migration, because sea turtles are not expected to be abundant in the survey area. Previous and subsequent analysis of the potential impacts take account of these planned mitigation measures. It would not be meaningful to analyze the effects of the planned activities without mitigation, as the mitigation (and associated monitoring) measures are a basic part of the activities.

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Culture Routine diagnosis of Buruli ulcer does not rely on culture, which offers the possibility of strain characterization and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Culture detects between 34% and 79% of positive cases but is not useful for immediate patient management (102, 265, 272), though culture is appropriate for the monitoring of antimycobacterial treatment (98, 264) as well as for performance of molecular epide miology analyses, which are almost impossible to carry out directly from clinical specimens (94). Histopathological Analysis Histopathological examination is sensitive but expensive and requires a sophisti cated laboratory, well-trained personnel, and invasive procedures (biopsy) (274). His topathological analysis conrms 90% of clinically diagnosed cases and 70% of clinically suspected cases (102, 272). Its sensitivity is about 90% but requires a sophis ticated laboratory and the use of invasive procedures (265), and histopathology is not available in most countries of endemicity for treatment decisions (270). Samples taken from the necrotic portion of ulcerative lesions provide mycolactone for analysis (265). One of these methods consists in the detection of mycolactone after its extraction from clinical samples by uorescent thin-layer chromatography. More recently, a new molecular method based on detect January 2018 Volume 31 Issue 1 e00045-17 cmr. However, this was a preliminary proof of-concept report, and more tests must be done to approve this new method in the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (280). The bactericidal activity of rifampin combined with those of moxioxacin or clarithro mycin and of moxioxacin with clarithromycin equaled that of rifampin combined with streptomycin, and such combinations are validated as orally administered treatments of Buruli ulcer (287). Accordingly, an animal study showed that oral daily administration of rifapentine plus clarithromycin was at least as effective as injected streptomycin plus oral rifampin (288). Likewise, the effectiveness of puried methylene blue against the initial stage of Buruli ulcer in mice was recently proven (99). Ciprooxacin, sparoxacin, ooxacin, amikacin, and rifampin were shown to be effective in vitro against primary clinical and reference isolates of M. Combined rifampin-amikacin, rifampin clarithromycin-sparoxacin, or rifampin-amikacin cured M. The association of rifampin with moxioxacin, R207910, or linezolid showed bactericidal effects equal to those of rifampin-streptomycin and rifampin-amikacin (282). Recently, a mouse model indicated that an oral intermittent 8-week regimen of rifapentine combined with clarithromycin was highly bactericidal and had better sterilizing activity than the conventional rifampin-streptomycin regimen (294). These in vitro and animal model data supported the proposal to shift from the once-standard streptomycin-based therapy to oral combinations. In Australia, fully oral combinations of rifampin with either clarithromycin or uoroquinolones were shown to be effective and well tolerated (295). Moreover, a shorter 29-day therapy was shown to achieve an overall 95% success rate (296). In this experiment, no relapses were observed in mice treated with rifampin-streptomycin and one relapse (5%) was observed in a mouse treated with rifampin-clofazimine, while relapses were observed in 50% of cases with the rifampin-clarithromycin combination (297)(Table 5). Early detection and management is very important in reducing morbidity and the diseases disguring nature. A key factor contributing to the steady increase of Buruli ulcer in resource-limited settings is improper practice of personal hygiene. Until the introduction of antibiotic therapy, the use of surgery to remove all infected tissue, with a wide safety margin to ensure the complete removal of infected tissues, was regarded as the most effective treatment (218, 298). Recurrence rates after surgical treatment without antibiotics vary from 16% to 28% (299). In addition, the cost of surgical treatment is far beyond the means of those most severely affected (299). Prevention of functional limitations and physiotherapy are now accepted as an integral part of therapy (214). In this study, no differences in resulting functional limitations were observed between patients treated with surgery, antibiotics, or both. Without antibiotics, recurrence has been reported to be higher: as high as 48% (301).


  • Book syndrome
  • Chromosome 9, trisomy 9q32
  • Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Coeliac disease
  • Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia cleft syndrome
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase deficiency
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Anorexia nervosa restricting type
  • Wellesley Carmen French syndrome

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X linked recessive inheritance In X linked recessive conditions males are affected because they have only a single copy of genes carried by the X chromosome (hemizygosity), but the disorder can be transmitted through healthy female carriers. A female carrier of an X linked recessive disorder will transmit the condition to half her sons, and half her daughters will be carriers. An affected male will transmit the mutant gene to all his daughters (who must inherit his X chromosome), but to none of his sons (who Parents must inherit his Y chromosome). This is usually due to non-random X inactivation leading to the chromosome that carries the mutant allele remaining active in most cells. The homozygous affected state may occur in females whose father is affected and whose mother is a carrier. Identifying female Carrier female: Normal male gene carriers requires interpretation of the family pedigree and: the results of specific carrier tests, including direct mutation Figure 6. Although dominant, females may be less severely affected than males, as in X linked hypophosphataemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets) and oculomotor nystagmus, because of X inactivation which results in expression of the mutant allele in only a proportion of cells. The pedigree, however, resembles autosomal dominant inheritance except that there is no male to male transmission and there is an excess of affected females. In some disorders the condition appears to be lethal in affected males, for example focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) and incontinentia pigmenti. In these families there will be fewer males than expected, half of the females will be affected and all surviving males will be unaffected. Rett syndrome is a disorder that affects girls almost exclusively and usually occurs sporadically, since affected females do not reproduce. This disorder has been shown to be due to a mutation in a gene located at Xq24, confirming that it is an X linked dominant condition. Other types of mutations occur occasionally in these genes resulting in the same phenotype. It is likely that the expansion affects the transcriptional process of several neighbouring genes. Imprinting It has been observed that some inherited traits do not conform to the pattern expected of classical mendelian inheritance in which genes inherited from either parent have an equal effect. The effects of imprinting can be observed at several levels: that of the whole genome, that of particular chromosomes or chromosomal segments, and that of individual genes. When the extra chromosome set is maternal, the placenta is small and underdeveloped without cystic changes and the fetus is noticeably underdeveloped. Angelman syndrome is quite distinct and is associated with severe mental retardation, microcephaly, ataxia, epilipsy and absent speech. Similar de novo cytogenetic or molecular deletions can be detected in both conditions. Uniparental disomy is rare in Angelman syndrome, but when it occurs it involves disomy of the paternal chromosome 15. The process can occur during early embryonic development, or in later fetal or postnatal life. The process of pigmenti, an X linked dominant disorder, lethal in males but not in females, because of functional X chromosomal mosaicism (courtesy of X inactivation occurs in early embryogenesis and is random. Professor Dian Donnai, Regional Genetic Service, St Marys Hospital Thus, alleles that differ between the two chromosomes will be Manchester) expressed in mosaic fashion. Occasional females will, by chance, have the normal X chromosome inactivated in the majority of cells and will then manifest systemic symptoms of the disorder caused by the mutant gene. Chromosomal mosaicism is not infrequent, and arises by postzygotic errors in mitosis. The abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis or arm of chromosome 12 arrowed) (courtesy of Dr Lorraine Gaunt and chorionic villus sampling may be confined to placental cells, Helena Elliott, Regional Genetic service, St Marys Hospital, Manchester) 32 Unusual inheritance mechanisms but even when present in the fetus the severity with which the No deletion fetus will be affected is difficult to predict.

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Sm allm ultiple abscesses m ay develop in the liverof calves as a resultofinfection ofthe um bilicus (sawdustliver. The anim als affected with abscesses spread through the blood stream (pyem ia)are condem ned on antem ortem ifthe findings ofabscesses are overm ostareas ofthe body and system ic involvem entis evidentas shown in elevated tem perature and cachexia. On postm ortem exam ination,the carcasses are condem ned forabscesses,ifthe abscesses resulted from entry ofpyogenic organism s into the blood stream and into the abdom inal organs,spine orm usculature. An abscess in the lungs m ay require condem nation ofthe lungs and an passing the carcass ifno otherlesions are noted. Liverabscesses associated with um bilicalinfection require condem nation ofthe carcass. Ifno otherinfection is presentthe abscess is trim m ed offand the liverm ay be utilized forhum an oranim alfood depending on the regulations ofthe respective country. Em aciation Em aciation is a com m on condition offood anim als and is characterized by a loss offatand flesh following the loss ofappetite,starvation and cachexia. Itis associated with gradual dim inution in the size oforgans and m usculartissue as wellas edem a in m any cases. Cachexia is a clinicalterm fora chronic debilitating condition orgeneralphysicalwasting caused by chronic disease. Em aciation is a postm ortem descriptive term which should be differentiated from thinness. Serious atrophy offatin the carcass and organs especially the pericardialand renalfat. Edem a and anaem ia m ay develop due to starvation and m alnutrition due to parasite infestations. Judgem ent:Anim als affected with em aciation should be treated as suspectson antem ortem inspection. On postm ortem exam ination itis im portantto assess and differentiate em aciation from leanness. In case ofdoubt,the carcass m ay be held in the refrigerated room and the generalsetting ofthe carcass should be exam ined the following day. Ifthe body cavities are relatively dry,edem a ofm uscle tissue is notpresentand fatis ofan acceptable consistency i. W ellnourished carcasses with serous atrophy ofthe heartand kidneys and m ere leanness m ay file:///C:/versam m elt/index m eister. A carcass with any am ountofnorm alfatm ay be approved ifeverything else appears norm al. The carcasses from anim als being in transportfora long period oftim e m ay show extensive serous atrophy offat(m ucoid degeneration offattissue) withoutany changes in organs and m uscles. The carcass and viscera m ustbe condem ned ifem aciation is due to chronic infectious disease. An objective judgem entofem aciation with edem a m ay be m ade using a 47 % ethanol/m ethanol in watersolution. A clear,pea-sized piece ofbone m arrow,taken from the distalradius,is put carefully into the solution. Ifitsinks,the m arrow which reflectthe watercontentofthe carcass as a whole,has approxim ately 45 % watercontent. Leanness (Poorness)is often observed in range bulls on poorquality pasture,high m ilking cows and young growing anim als which have had protein deficientdiet. The anim als are physiologically norm aland the reduced fatdeposits ofthe anim alcarcass are norm alin colour and consistency. The m uscle colouris darkerthan norm al,and fattissue m ay stillbe presentin the orbitofthe eye. Edem a Edem a is the accum ulation ofexcess fluid in the intercellular(interstitial)tissue com partm ents, including body cavities. Non-inflam m atory (transudate) Inflam m atory edem a shows yellow,white orgreenish clearorcloudy fluid in the area of inflam m ation. Non-inflam m atory edem a is an accum ulation offluid in subcutaneous tissue, subm ucosae,lungs and brain. Interference with the lym ph circulation ofan organ orarea by proliferation oftum ours in or around bile ducts. Inflam m ation oran allergic reaction System icorgeneralized edem a m ay occursecondary to congestive heartfailure oris caused by low protein levels in the blood.

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Editorial Boards of Influential P7-172 Psychiatry Journals P7-160 Difference in Power Spectral Density Monique Mun, M. Opioid Use Disorder Patients Who Are Compliant Versus Non Compliant P8-001 P8-011 With Buprenorphine Risk of Perinatal Depression Empowerment and Stigma as Mediator Nuzhat Hussain, M. Among Women Screened Within a Variables Between Illness Severity Mobile Application and Quality of Life of Patients With P7-177 Christina Cobb Affective Disorders Sleep Misperception in Patients With Karel Joachim Frasch, M. Insomnia and Sleep Apnea P8-002 Shin Gyeom Kim Effects of Ketamine and Esketamine on P8-012 the Levels of Brain-Derived Neutrophic Cognitive Function of Patients With P7-178 Factor in Patients With Treatment Treatment-Resistant Depression After a Perampanel in Patients With Resistant Depression Single Low Dose of Ketamine Infusion Resistent Insomnia Ana Teresa Caliman Fontes Muhong Chen Eugenio Suarez Gisbert P8-003 P8-013 P7-179 Previous Dissociation Predicts Persistent Antidepressant Effect of Parallels Between Social Determinants Intrainfusional Dissociation by Ketamine Infusion and Activation in of Psychiatric Health Care in the U. Ketamine and Esketamine in Treatment the Supplementary Motor Area and Armed Forces and General Health Care Resistant Depression Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the U. Coping Style Jia Zhou P8-016 P7-182 Toward Precision Psychiatry for Anxiety Symptoms Are Associated P8-006 Major Depression: An Umbrella With Smaller Insular and Orbitofrontal Effectiveness of Mirtazapine as Add Review of Psychosocial Factors in Cortex Volumes in Late-Life Depression on Versus Paroxetine or Mirtazapine Treatment Resistance Kitikan Thana-Udom, M. Effect of Ketamine and Esketamine in Suicidal Ideation: Relationship P8-018 to Depression Aripiprazole Monotherapy Induces Lucas Quarantini Psychotic Symptoms in a Treatment Resistant Depressed Patient: A Case Report Courtney Liebling, M. P8-020 P8-032 P8-044 Low-Dose Naltrexone in Treating Rapastinel for the Treatment of Major Association of Habenula Volume With Fibromyalgia and Major Depressive Depressive Disorder: A Patient-Centric Anhedonia, Pathological Rumination Disorder Clinical Development Program and Electrocortical Response to Jeeha Park Armin Szegedi Motivationally Relevant Stimuli in Depression P8-021 P8-033 Lyubomir I. P8-034 Camila Puertas Lack of Casp1, Ifngr, and Nos2 Genes P8-022 Alter Depressive and Anxiety-Like P8-046 Association Between Protein Intake and Behavior and Gut Microbiota Management of Depression in Late Depression in the United States and Ma-Li Wong, M. The Role of Mental Illness and Ecological Factors in Targeted P8-030 P8-042 School Shootings Managing Esketamine Treatment Improvements in Workplace Janice Hill-Jordan Frequency Toward Successful Productivity in Working Patients With Outcomes: Analysis of Phase 3 Data Major Depressive Disorder: Results Michel Nijs, M. P8-077 P8-056 Impulsivity Is Associated With Suicide Cardiovascular Effects of Repeated P8-066 Attempts, Hospitalizations and Sexual Subcutaneous Esketamine in Challenges Involved in Using Prevention Strategies in Brazilian Treatment-Resistant Depression Interpreters for Psychotherapy Patients With Bipolar Disorder Lorena Catarina Del Sant, M. P8-080 P8-069 Cariprazine Efficacy in Patients With P8-059 Specifying the Not Otherwise Bipolar Depression and Concurrent Real-World Psychiatric Medication Specified the Ability of Screening Tools Manic Symptoms: Post Hoc Usage Preceding a Diagnosis of Suicidal to Differentiate Bipolar Subgroups in an Analysis of 3 Randomized, Placebo Ideation or Suicide Attempt in Patients Inpatient Population Controlled Studies With Major Depressive Disorder Sarah Hernandez, B. Suicide Attempt P8-082 Cheryl Neslusan P8-071 Improving the Diagnosis and Treatment Co-Occurring Bipolar Disorder and of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Through P8-061 Borderline Personality: State or Trait Mood State Maria Paz Garcia-Portilla 212 P8-086 P8-097 P8-108 Psychopharmacological Approach Do the Impact of Risk Factors or Detection of Suicide Ideas on Social of the Obsessive-Compulsive Protective Factors for Suicidality Networks: Review of the Literature and Bipolar Comorbidity Change in Response to Effective a Pilot Study Raquel Serrano Treatment P8-087 P8-109 Efficacy and Safety of Lurasidone in P8-098 Effectiveness of a Prompt Psychiatric Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Does Citalopram Increase the Appointment After a Suicide-Related Depression: Results From a 2-Year Frequency of Up-Switches of Impulsive Emergency Department Visit in Open-Label Extension Study Suicidality in a Subject With Impulse Older Adults Melissa Delbello Attack Suicidality Disorder P8-110 Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder in Perceived Burdensomeness and Multiple Sclerosis: Systematic Review P8-099 Thwarted Belongingness Mediate the and Meta Analysis Is the Count of Suicidal Events Relationship Between Depression and Aiswarya Lakshmi Nandakumar an Acceptable Substitute for the the Suicide Crisis Syndrome Seriousness of Suicidal Events in Gelan Ying P8-089 Rating Each Suicidal Phenomenon A Impulsivity Between the Acute Case Study P8-111 Manic Episode and Euthymia in David V. P8-113 Patients: An Internet Survey Extreme Anxiety Moderates the Meredith Stacy Senter, M. Personality Traits and the Suicide Crisis Suicide Risk Syndrome in an Outpatient Population Sonia Farinha Silva P8-094 Zara Habib, M. Cosner A Population Based Nested Case P8-095 Control Study P8-117 the Neural Correlates of Thought Johan Reutfors, M. Relation of Rapid Eye Movement Action Fusion in Healthy Adults: Sleep Disturbances and Coronary A Functional Magnetic Resonance P8-106 Artery Calcium With Posttraumatic Imaging Study Systematic Suicide Risk Assessment Stress Disorder Seung Jae Lee Utilizing Safe-T Naser Ahmadi, M. P8-096 P8-118 Identication, Validation, and P8-107 Endocannabinoid System Modulation in Characterization of Obsessive Disorder Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Case Samples in a Large U. P8-119 Mental Disorder Symptoms Among Correctional Workers in Canada Anees Bahji, M. Related Symptoms in Undocumented Involved Youth Immigrants at a Student-Run Free Sarah Velez P8-122 Clinic Project Psychotherapy for Borderline Linda Chou P8-143 Personality Disorder in Children and Effect of Combat Exposure and Adolescents: Systematic Review and P8-133 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Meta-Analysis Associated Psychological Factors for Telomere Length and Amygdala Volume Anees Bahji, M. Following Sexual Assault: Predictors of P8-146 Attachment Security and Influence of Hair, Cultural Identity, Beauty P8-124 Attachment on Treatment Response and Body Satisfaction in African the Broad Impact of Childhood Trauma: Mariana Rangel Maciel, M. Physical-Psychiatric Comorbidity in a American Women Cohort of Individuals Exposed to 9/11 P8-135 Dolani Ajanaku in Childhood the Investigation of the Behavior P8-147 Lawrence Amsel of Runaway Teenagers After Elementary Education Disciplinary Earthquake Disaster Disparities and Single P8-125 Youran Dai Parent Households Mental Health Service Utilization Among Victims of Violent Injury P8-136 Matthew C. P8-151 Addressing Racial Trauma in Our P8-129 P8-139 Treatment Dropout Among Veterans Psychiatric Practice: A Call for Change Timing of Initiation of Evidence-Based and Their Families Receiving Care at Gali Hashmonay, M. Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic a University-Based Treatment Center: Stress Disorder Among Veterans in the P8-152 Quantitative and Qualitative Findings Veterans Health Administration Isnt Life Itself Really Just One Big Doron Amsalem, M. Impact and Outcomes of Professional Internet Game Players and Language Barrier a Structured Intervention Program Professional Baseball Players Zohaib A. Mental Illness P8-168 Tayler Marie Kelly Lamoureux, P8-157 Ketamine for Acute Agitation as L.

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The package volume is a product of the length, width, and height of the packaged respirator. As of October 2006, the Safety Tech Chemihood has been discontinued due to low sales. It comes in one-size-fits-most adults, has a high-protection factor, and can be donned in less than 30 s. It comes as a one-size-fits-all, can be donned in less than 10 s, and can be used by persons with glasses and/or facial hair. Its clear hood with large visor allows the user to use a phone or other communications devices. Other features include a comfortable neck seal, blower indicator light, and 5 yr shelf life. It is sized for individual fit (S, M, and L), identifiable by color and letter on the hexagonal storage case. The translucent hood design with a one-piece large bonded lens offers a wide field of view. The canister contains a pleated high-efficiency (P-100) filter to remove aerosols, radio nuclides, and solid particulates, and an impregnated activated carbon bed to adsorb gases and vapors. The Response Escape Hood has a large lens and translucent hood to allow better visibility, face recognition, and help reduce claustrophobia, and an integrated nose cup, so wearers can breathe and speak normally. Its unique nose cup also helps reduce lens fogging and carbon dioxide buildup by directing airflow inside the hood. The hood is suitable for high-profile office environments, government agencies or embassies, or law enforcement or first responders. The unit has dual cartridges mounted low and on the side versus a single canister mounted in the front, to allow for better weight distribution and better visibility. Color coding is not available, although custom logo/marking may be considered based upon market demand. It is a silicone, facial-conforming mask that comes as a one-size-fits-most adults and can be donned in less than 6 s. The mask has double activated military-grade carbon filters for optimum protection. It has excellent speech transmission; telephones, cell phones and microphones can be easily used while wearing the mask. Its ultra compact size will allow users to fit the mask into a purse or briefcase. The filter system is positioned in front of and below the wearers mouth so it does not interfere with outward vision. Breathing is accomplished by means of a snorkel type mouthpiece inside the hood, and a nose clip is used to prevent inhaling or exhaling through the nose. Related accessory items include a practice/training hood, a protective carry case, and a video. Key benefits of the QuickPro Escape Hood include its reduced package size, increased filter capacity, the ability to communicate, a drink tube that provides the capability to stay hydrated, and low breathing resistance. The Chemihood is easy to don and use because of the self-adjusting strap and can be used with personal eye glasses. The Chemihood has a high protection factor that equates with a full face mask (protection factor breathing zone >1000). The escape respirator is a lightweight hood design to accommodate glasses and facial hair, which can be donned easily in confined spaces. The Tyvek F material and interchangeable A2B2E2K2 P3 filter provides excellent chemical resistance to all known chemical and biological agents for up to 60 min respiratory protection. The hood is available in two sizes, fitting most adults and teenagers; requires no fit-testing; and offers up to 60 min protection. A silicone half mask is inside the hood, and can be equipped with a voice amplification system on special request.